Once considered a problem of developed countries, obesity and obesity-related complications (such as metabolic syndrome) are rapidly spreading around the globe. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of metabolic syndrome, particularly weight loss and central obesity.
The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 123 overweight and obese persons (47.2% male; 52.8% female; ages 19-50). The 92 obese (BMI >30) participants were randomized into three groups; placebo, formulation/no diet, and formulation/diet (2100-2200 calories/day). The 31 overweight participants (BMI = 25-29) formed a fourth (no diet) treatment group. All participants received two daily doses of the formulation or placebo and remained on a normal or calorie-controlled diet for 8 weeks.
At the end of the trial period, statistically significant net reductions in weight and central obesity, as well as in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein were observed in participants who received the formulation, regardless of diet.
Cissus quadrangularis formulation appears to be useful in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome.
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is an indigenous medicinal plant, grown in India, which helps to increase healing process of fractured bone. Fracture of maxillofacial skeletal takes reasonably long time to heal. Many attempts have been made till today to reduce the healing period of 6- 8 weeks, by means of improved surgical technology or by inhibiting the physiological mechanism of bone healing.
To evaluate the effect of C. quadrangularis in healing process of maxillofacial fracture.
All the patients were treated by open reduction internal fixation method and in postoperative management, antibiotics, and analgesics. Patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1, one capsule of C. quadrangularis (500 mg) thrice a day for 6 weeks was administered (n = 5), and in Group 2 (control group), no supplementary medication was administered (n = 4). Pain, swelling, fragment mobility, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus were evaluated pre- and post-operatively on day-1, -21, and -45.
Pain, swelling, and fragment mobility were low in Group 1 compared to Group 2. Serum calcium and serum phosphorus were also high, and healing of bone was clearly seen in Group 1 on day 21 as compared to control group.
C. quadrangularis helps in reducing pain, swelling, and fracture mobility and accelerate the healing of fracture jaw bones.
To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification.
MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 microg/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT).
Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 microg/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 microg/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells.
The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis.